As defined by A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic (Geir Zoëga):
etja Old Icelandic word can mean:
- (et, atta, attr), v.
- 1) to incite, egg (goad) on to fight, with dat.; ~ hestum, to make horses fight; with acc., ~ e-n til þolinmœði, to exhort one to patience;
- 2) ~ hamingju, afli, við e-n, to match one’s luck, strength, with anolher’s; ~ kappi við e-n, to contend in rivalry, vie with one; ~ ráðum, hvárt …, to consider, if …; ~ saman manndrápum, to incite two parties to manslaughter;
- 3) ~ við e-t, to contend against; ~ við aflsmun (liðsmun), to fight against odds;
- 4) to put forth; hann etr fram skallanum, he exposes his bare skull (to the blows);
- 5) to cause to be eaten; ~ heyvi, heyjum, to feed cattle upon hay;
- 6) refl., etjast við e-n, to contend with one; ef menn etjast vitnum á, if men contend (plead) with witnesses.
Possible runic inscription in Younger Futhark:ᛁᛏᛁᛅ
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This headword also appears in dictionaries of other languages closely related to Old Icelandic.